Research References for Using Hypnosis with Sport Pt 2
Malouff, J. & Murphy, C. (2006) Effects of Self-Instructions on Sport Performance. Journal of Sport Behavior. Vol 29(2), pp. 159-168
2 24 4 Abstract: This article describes an experiment that tested whether using selfinstructions would improve sport performance. For the study, 100 adults, randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, competed in a putting tournament. The intervention group members were asked to give themselves a self-instruction of their choice, e.g., “body still,” before each putt. The control group members received instructions to putt as usual. The self-instruction golfers needed significantly fewer putts than the golfers in the control condition to complete 12 holes, each with a starting putt of about 12 feet. The self-instruction golfers as a group reported that they thought they were putting better than normal, while the golfers in the control condition thought they were putting at about their usual level of performance. The results add to prior evidence that self-instructions can improve sport performance.
Comments: Again, how much more effective would the self-instruction process be with formal self-hypnosis?
Pates. J. et al. (2002) The Effects of Hypnosis on Flow States and Three-Point Shooting Performance in Bastketball Players. Sport Psychologist [Sport Psychol.]. Vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 34-47
Abstract: This study examined the effects of hypnosis on flow states and three-point shooting performance in 5 collegiate basketball players. The investigation utilized an ideographic single-subject multiple baselines across subjects design combined with a procedure that monitors the internal experience of the participants (Wollman, 1986). The method of intervention utilized in this study involved relaxation, imagery, hypnotic induction, hypnotic regression, and trigger control procedures. The results indicated that all five participants increased both their mean basketball three-point shooting performance and their mean flow scores from baseline to intervention. There were no overlapping data points between the baseline and intervention for either performance or flow state. Additionally, each participant indicated that they had felt the intervention was useful in keeping them confident, relaxed, and calm. These results support the hypothesis that a hypnosis intervention can improve three-point shooting performance in basketball players and increase feelings and cognitions that are associated with flow
Comments: Although this study is in a very specific area of sport, there is no reason to presume that it is not replicable across many subtasks of many sports. There are many that have similar dimensions requiring relaxation, focus and flow.