Locus of Control Part 2
Following on from yesterday’s blog, how does feeling in control fit the process of motivation? It isÂ clear from everyday life that most of us, most of the time areÂ more motivated by situations which involve choice, control andÂ self-determination. Conversely most of us, most of the time, preferÂ not to be controlled or pressured too much. These ideas bringÂ us to the concept of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
Intrinsic motivation is being motivated by the process itself, usuallyÂ for fun, enjoyment, challenge etc. Intrinsic motivation is oftenÂ considered to be key in persistence and continuing motivation.
However there are few situations that hypno-psychotherapists will face whereÂ the motivation is truly intrinsic (smokers do not quit because theyÂ enjoy the process of becoming a non-smoker, and a phobicÂ client will not be motivated to resolve their issue by the thoughtÂ of the fun of systematic desensitisation!). However, where possibleÂ these elements can be built on. Also, as you extend your
practice as a Hypno-Psychotherapist, you can attract clients forÂ issues where this is more of a factor, such as in performance andÂ personal development areas.Â Deci and Ryan (1985) suggest that there are four approaches toÂ intrinsic motivation: free choice, interest, challenge and ‘needs’.Â These needs include ‘relatedness’, ‘competence’ and ‘self-determination’.Â This suggests that if a change or behaviour is of theÂ person’s choice, is interesting, is a challenge, and meets one orÂ more of these needs, the person is more likely to be motivatedÂ than not. All of these are areas that can be examined by theÂ hypno-psychotherapistÂ and client together, and maximised.
Extrinsic motivation is that which is external to the process and ismost typically seen as rewards. Deci and Ryan interestingly suggestÂ that increasing extrinsic motivation is not necessarily a good
thing as it can lead to a decrease in intrinsic motivation. This factÂ was backed up by research conducted with school children.Â The children were divided into three groups to play with brightly
coloured pens; one group were told they would be rewardedÂ (and were), the second group were told nothing, but were alsoÂ rewarded, and the third did not receive an award. The experimentÂ showed that the children who had been told they wouldÂ be rewarded for playing with, subsequently played with themÂ significantly less than the other children. This shows that it is theÂ expectation of reward that can be an issue.
Reward is not the only form of extrinsic motivation however. ItÂ may also include approval and pressure for example. Deci andÂ Ryan’s ‘self-determination theory’ (drawn from the needs stated
above), divides this into four aspects or ‘reasons’ for our behaviour:Â External regulation: eg coercion from other people: “I must”Â Introjected regulation: eg avoidance of negative feelings for not
doing the behaviour/change: “I should”Â Identified regulation: eg acting based on perceived benefits: “IÂ want to”Â Integrated regulation: eg doing it because the outcome isÂ important to the self: “It is important to me”Â Most clients that hypno-psychotherapists will see will be coming from one ofÂ these standpoints rather than intrinsic. In fact, identified and integrated are likely to be the most beneficial starting points.
Canadian psychologist Robert J. Vallerand (1997) organises theÂ constructs of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation into a hierarchicalÂ model. Essentially he proposes that intrinsic and extrinsic motivationÂ (and amotivation), feature at global, contextual and situationalÂ levels. At each level there are antecedents (such as eitherÂ global, contextual or situational factors and needs for autonomy,
competence and relatedness) as well as affective, cognitiveÂ and behavioural consequences.Â The global level refers to a general motivational orientation toÂ which people typically subscribe. The contextual level of theÂ model refers to domains of life, such as work, leisure, family.Â Finally, the situational level is concerned with situation-specificÂ motivation.