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We yearn for meaning, belonging and relatedness. A connectedness with the universe and universal impulses. There are no boundaries in reality except those that are created by consciousness.  Just because something falls outside the boundaries of science it does not make it irrational.

Jung  (1963) p72

Jung’s psychology is one of balance, growth and hope. He was no Polyanna, but he held a view of radical positivism as opposed to Freud’s psychic determinism. His view of human nature was essentially positive in that his theoretical assumptions were based on revelation and change towards individuation. Humanists later coined the term “actualising tendency”. He posited a complex view of the human psyche and saw the psyche as embedded in the past, present and future. He also described the psyche as consisting of conscious and unconscious elements, masculine and feminine characteristics, rational and irrational impulses, spiritualistic and animalistic tendencies, and destructive and creativity capacity. Jung hypothesized the self-regulating psyche and the tendency towards harmony and integration. However, he was adamant in his view that individuation does not happen naturally, but has to be sought. His analytical approach was to facilitate the harmonising of all aspects of the psyche to assist the individuation process. Furthermore, he believed that a spiritual connectedness is an essential factor in the individuation process. Freud believed the psyche is driven by innate biological forces. Jung accepted the concept of innate biological drives, but argued that a spiritual drive for meaning is the essential force within the psyche.  Jung claimed that human basic anatomy and physiology has not changed much since time immemorial; nor have we changed much in our basic psychological experiences. He argued that the world is more complex than our limited system of thought and that all human beings have an innate predisposition to engage in a life journey. According to Jung, furthermore, we may live in a different time space and take separate pathways, but share the collective journey that our ancestors took and our descendants will take.

Psychic Energy

Freud described psychic energy as being essentially sexual. Jung and Freud disagreed on this issue. Jung accepted the libidinal forces as being part of a holistic psyche, but argued that the libido was a creative life force made up of mind, body and spirit. According to Jung, the value of something is determined by how much libidinal energy is invested in it.

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